Year 8 Independant Learning Program (ILP)


Allow a maximum of 6 weeks for this topic

BOS or NESA outcomes

SC4-WS5.3 Students choose equipment or resources for an investigation by:
b. selecting equipment to collect data with accuracy appropriate to the task.
SC4-WS6 Students conduct investigations by:
c. selecting equipment to collect data with accuracy appropriate to the task.
e. recording observations and measurements accurately, using appropriate units for physical quantities. 
SC4-WS7.2 Students analyse data and information by:
d. using scientific understanding to identify relationships and draw conclusions based on students' data or secondary sources.

SC4-PW2 The action of forces that act at a distance may be observed and related to everyday situations.
b. identify ways in which objects acquire electrostatic charge
c. describe the behaviour of charged objects when they are brought close to each other
d. investigate everyday situations where the effects of electrostatic forces can be observed, eg lightning strikes during severe weather and dust storms.
h. describe the behaviour of magnetic poles when they are brought close together
i. investigate how magnets and electromagnets are used in some everyday devices or technologies used in everyday life
SC4-PW3 Energy appears in different forms including movement (kinetic energy), heat and potential energy, and causes change within systems.
c. relate electricity with energy transfer in a simple circuit
d. construct and draw circuits containing a number of components to show a transfer of electricity

Learning Activities:

1) Define using diagrams the concepts: gravity, magnetic and electrostatic. Extension: Explain how light or Electromagnetic radiation uses or is affected by all three of these force fields. Extreme Extension: what is the unified field theory and which Scientist spent most of his life working on it?

2) Describe how an electro static charge can build up, think about thunderstorms, carpets and a van der graf generator.

3) Experiment: ask your teacher for the perspex and ebonite rods, and associated equipment, charge up the rods and hold them near small objects, each other and a stream of water (without getting the rod wet!). Write up your findings in a proper Scientific report, using the headings: Title, Aim, Theory, Method, Results and conclusion.

4) Consider what could happen to an aircraft, if it flies through a cloud charged with static electricity. What has been done by engineers to protect aircraft from this happening. What can a pilot do to reduce these risks?

5) Experiment: Ask your teacher for the magnets and the iron filings (sealed in a bag or container). Then play with the magnets to see how they affects each other. Use the filings to "see" the magnetic flux lines, draw these in your results section, do a proper prac write up, see above. Also describe how like poles and unlike poles affect each other, can you come up with a statement or rule that defines this behaviour? if so write it into your conclusion.

6) Research how an electric motor works, explain the difference between a DC (direct current) motor and an AC (Alternating Current) motor. Look for and copy some simplified diagrams, remember a picture = 1000 words (3 pages of writing).

7) Ask your teacher if the school has a model electric motor, if so, use it to prepare a video recording on your ipad in which you explain how it works to a group of pretend (or real) students.

8) Make up a table which compares AC and DC household devices and power tools and list the advantages and disadvantages of using Alternating or direct currents to power each. Consider at least 6 devices.

9) Extension: Tesla and Edison are two american Scientist famous for their work on electricity, one preferred Alternating currents the other Direct Currents to power their inventions. Read up on these two, and list some of their discoveries and devices which we still use today. Which of these two people do you think make the biggest contribution to our society, justify your answer.

10) Define the terms Work, Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy. Next consider a basketball sitting on the floor in front of you, then you pick up the ball and lift it above your head, after 5 seconds, you allow the ball to roll of your hand and bounce on the floor in front of you. Describe the energy of the ball during each stage of the scenario described above.

11) How is water in a dam converted to Hydro-electricity? How can we use this to store energy captured from the sun in solar panels? write a one page report, include a diagram which explains how potential energy relates to this process.

12) Prepare a table which lists common electrical components, state their name, their function and draw their symbol. You must include at least the following: resistor, switch, battery, capacitor, diode, and ofcourse wire.

13) Experiment: Ask your teacher for the electrical circuits equipment and design and build some simple circuits to test the function of each of the components available to you, be careful! do NOT expose a capacitor to a large Direct Current (DC) as they can explode. Do a proper write-up and in your results table summerise how each components can be used to do something useful for you in an electric circuit.

14) Experiment: Design and draw a simple circuit which halves either the voltage or current supplied by a battery, then build and test it. Write your finding up an a proper experiment. In the method explain the function of each component in the trasfer of electricity.

15) Extension: buy or design and build an electrical circuit that does something useful, eg a radio or a remote control, you choose.